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In data warehousing and business intelligence (BI), a star schema is the simplest form of a dimensional model, in which data is organized into facts and dimensions. A fact is an event that is counted or measured, such as a sale or login. A dimension contains reference information about the fact, such as date, product, or customer. A star schema is diagramed by surrounding each fact with its associated dimensions. The resulting diagram resembles a star.
Within the data warehouse or data mart, a dimension table is associated with a fact table by using a foreign key relationship. The dimension table has a single primary key that uniquely identifies each member record (row). The fact table contains the primary key of each associated dimension table as a foreign key. Combined, these foreign keys form a multi-part composite primary key that uniquely identifies each member record in the fact table. The fact table also contains one or more numeric measures.
For example, a simple Sales fact with millions of individual clothing sale records might contain a Product Key, Promotion Key, Customer Key, and Date Key, along with Units Sold and Revenue measures. The Product dimension would hold reference information such as product name, description, size, and color. The Promotion dimension would hold information such as promotion name and price. The Customer dimension would hold information such as first and last name, birth date, gender, address, etc. The Date dimension would include calendar date, week of year, month, quarter, year, etc. This simple Sales fact will easily support queries such as “total revenue for all clothing products sold during the first quarter of the 2010” or “count of female customers who purchased 5 or more dresses in December 2009”.
The star schema supports rapid aggregations (such as count, sum, and average) of many fact records, and these aggregations can be easily filtered and grouped (“sliced & diced”) by the dimensions. A star schema may be partially normalized (snowflaked), with related information stored in multiple related dimension tables, to support specific data warehousing needs.
Online analytical processing (OLAP) databases (data warehouses and data marts) use a denormalized star schema, with different but related information stored in one dimension table, to optimize queries against large data sets. A star schema may be partially normalized, with related information stored in multiple related dimension tables, to support specific data warehousing needs. In contrast, an online transaction processing (OLTP) database uses a normalized schema, with different but related information stored in separate, related tables to ensure transaction integrity and optimize processing of individual transactions.
See also: normalization
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